E-HERBARIA

  • Name : Sharpunkha
  • English Name :Wild Indigo, Fish Poison
  • Scientific Name :Tephrosia purpurea

Habitat:

The plant grows abundantly in the upper Gangetic plains, and western Himalayas. The herb is commonly grown as a green manure in paddy fields in India and in tobacco and rubber plantation in other countries. It grows ubiquitously in all soils, sandy, rocky and loamy.1

Morphology Description:

Tephrosia purpurea (Dil.) Pers, belongs to the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae, tribe Millettieae, and it is a highly branched suberect herbaceous perennial, up to 60 m in height with spreading branches; the leaves are imparipinnate, with narrow, oblanceolate leaflets; the flowers are red or purple in extra-axillary racemes, the pods are slightly curved, 3?4.5 cm long, grey, smooth and containing 5?10 seeds per pod. 1

Parts Used:            Whole Plant, Root

Phytochemistry:

Several reports of T. purpureahave demonstrated the presence of flavones, flavanones and prenylated flavonoids, chalcones, and rotenoids. 1

Pharmacological Actions:

All parts of the plant have tonic and laxative properties. The dried plant is deobstruent, diuretic and useful in treating bronchitis, bilious febrile attacks and obstructions of the liver, spleen and kidneys. It is also recommended as a blood purifier, in the treatment of boils and pimples and is considered a cordial treatment. In southern India, a decoction of the fruit is given for intestinal worms and a fruit extract is used to relieve bodily pains and inflammatory problems. The roots are bitter and the decoction is used as a nematicide for treatment against Toxocora canis larvae which cause a lung disease in Sri Lanka; it is also used for treating dyspepsia, colic, and chronic diarrhoea and as an antihelminthic. 1

The primary pharmacological actions are summarized as under:

Respiratory System: 

i. Exerts bronchodilatory effect. 2

Digestive System: 

i. Exerts spasmolytic effect. 2

ii. Leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases.3

iii. Tephrosia purpurea may have therapeutic potential in combating Helicobacter pylori mediated gastroduodenal disorders.4

iv. The stem and aerial parts possess hepatoprotective activity.5

Endocrinal System: 

i. The leaves exhibit significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects.6

Cardiovascular System: 

i. Exerts vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects.2

Urinary System: 

i. Exerts diuretic effect.7

Musculoskeletal System: 

i. The shoot extract has been observed to possess anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects.8

Skin and Hair: 

i. Possesses significant wound healing activity.9

Others: 

i. Possesses anticancer effect.10

Indications:

 Liver Disorders

 Splenic Disorders

 Hepatosplenomegaly of any origin

References:

1. Khalafalah AK, Yousef AH, Esmail AM, et al. Chemical constituents of Tephrosia purpurea. Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 Mar-Apr; 2(2): 72?75.

2. Janbaz KH, Jan A, Qadir MI, Gilani AH. Spasmolytic, bronchodilator and vasorelaxant activity of methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Acta Pol Pharm. 2013 Mar-Apr;70(2):261-9

3. Patel A, Patel A, Patel A, Patel NM. Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae). Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 May;2(3):152-8.

4. Chinniah A, Mohapatra S, Goswami S, et al. On the potential of Tephrosia purpurea as anti-Helicobacter pylori agent. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jul 30;124(3):642-5.

5. Khatri A, Garg A, Agrawal SS. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea L. and stem bark of Tecomella undulata. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Feb 25;122(1):1-5.

6. Pavana P, Manoharan S, Renju GL, Sethupathy S. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Environ Biol. 2007 Oct;28(4):833-7.

7. Ashokkumar D, Narayana TV, Vidyasagar, Mazumder UK, Gupta M. Exploration of diuretic potential and electrolyte excretion of Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) in rats. J Diet Suppl. 2012 Mar;9(1):9-18.

8. Nile SH, Khobragade CN. In vitro anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Tephrosia purpurea shoot extract. Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Oct;6(10):1437-40.

9. Lodhi S, Pawar RS, Jain AP, Singhai AK. Wound healing potential of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 24;108(2):204-10.

10. Gulecha V, Sivakuma T. Anticancer activity of Tephrosia purpurea and Ficus religiosa using MCF 7 cell lines. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Jul;4(7):526-9.

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