E-HERBARIA

  • Name : Pudina Satva
  • English Name :Menthol
  • Scientific Name :

 

Habitat:

Peppermint - Satva is the natural laevo-rotatory menthol obtained from various species of Mentha (Fam. Lamiaceae).1 Mentha arvensis is the primary species of mint used to make natural menthol crystals and natural menthol flakes. This species is primarily grown in the Uttar Pradesh region in India.2

 

Morphological Description (Habit):

Colourless, hexagonal crystals, usually needle-like, or in fused masses or crystalline powder; odour, pleasant and peppermint-like; taste, warm and aromatic followed by a cool sensation.1

 

Parts Used:

Menthol is extracted from Bark and Leaves of trees of various Mentha species. It can be prepared synthetically as well.

 

Phytochemistry:

 

As per Ayurveda:

           Rasa (Taste)                 : Bitter, astringent

           Guna (Property)           : Sharp, Light, Clear

           Veerya (Potency)         : Hot

           Vipaka (End Result)    : Pungent

 

Pharmacological Actions:

Menthol is Kaphahara. Menthol is the major constituent of peppermint oil, an herbal preparation commonly used to treat nausea, spasms during colonoscopy and irritable bowel disease.3

Its primary pharmacological actions are summarized as under:

 

Central Nervous System:

i. Menthol decreases neuronal excitability, therefore contributing to menthol-induced central analgesia.4

 

Respiratory System:

i. Soothes the throat.

ii. Decongests the respiratory passage.

 

Digestive System:

i. Menthol induces spasmolytic effects in human colon circular muscle inhibiting directly the gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility, through the block of Ca2+ influx through sarcolemma L-type Ca2+ channels.3

ii. Oral treatment with menthol has been observed to display a gastroprotective activity through anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.5

iii. Provides gastroprotective and anti-diarrheal activities.6

 

Musculoskeletal System: 

i. Exhibits local anaesthetic and counterirritant properties.

 

Others: 

i. L-Menthol (0.8%) has been observed to be effective in preventing colonic spasm during colonoscopic examination.7

ii. Imparts a cooling sensation over the area of contact.

iii. Q. infectoria galls have been observed to exhibit similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens.10

 

Indications:

Musculoskeletal pain and inflammation

Sore throat, cough and nasal blockage

Gastric ulcers

Oral hygiene

 

References:

1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-1, Vol-6.

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menthol

3. Amato A1, Liotta R2, Mul? F3. Effects of menthol on circular smooth muscle of Human colon: Analysis of the mechanism of action. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014.

4. Pan R1, Tian Y, Gao R, et al. Central mechanisms of menthol-induced analgesia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012 Dec;343(3):661-72.

5. Rozza AL1, Meira de Faria F2, Souza Brito AR3, Pellizzon CH4. The gastroprotective effect of menthol: involvement of anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 21;9(1):e86686.

6. Rozza AL1, Hiruma-Lima CA, Takahira RK, et al. Effect of menthol in experimentally induced ulcers: pathways of gastroprotection. Chem Biol Interact. 2013 Nov 25;206(2):272-8.

7. Yoshida N1, Naito Y, Hirose R, et al. Prevention of colonic spasm using L-menthol in colonoscopic examination. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2014 May;29(5):579-83.

 

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