E-HERBARIA

  • Name : Pudina
  • English Name :Mint
  • Scientific Name :Mentha piperita

 

Habitat:

The plant is indigenous to Europe but is cultivated throughout the world.

 

Morphology Description (Habit):

Peppermint is a hybrid variant of Watermint and Spearmint. It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30?90 cm (12?35 in) tall, with smooth stems, square in cross section. The rhizomes are wide-spreading, fleshy, and bare fibrous roots. The leaves are from 4?9 cm (1.6?3.5 in) long and 1.5?4 cm (0.59?1.57 in) broad, dark green with reddish veins, and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. The leaves and stems are usually slightly fuzzy. The flowers are purple, 6?8 mm (0.24?0.31 in) long, with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0.20 in) diameter; they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem, forming thick, blunt spikes. Flowering is from mid to late summer.1

Parts Used:

Aerial Part

 

Phytochemistry:

The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone.2

 

As per Ayurveda:

           Rasa (Taste)                 : Pungent

           Guna (Property)           : Light, rough and sharp

           Veerya (Potency)         : Hot

           Vipaka (End Result)      : Pungent

 

Pharmacological Actions:

In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms have been conducted.2

Putiha is Vatakaphahara; the primary pharmacological actions of this soothing herb are summarized as under:

 

Respiratory System:

i. Mentha piperita is a plant popularly known in Brazil as "hortel?-pimenta" whose essential oil is used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, expectorant actions and anti-congestive. The oil has been observed to exert antispasmodic activity on tracheal smooth muscles, which may be correlated with its popular use in respiratory diseases.3

 

Digestive System:

i. The herb is an excellent digestive and carminative.

ii. Mentha piperita may be used to help control infantile colic.4

 

Endocrinal System:

i. Mentha piperita has been observed to exhibit significant beneficial effects against fructose-induced hyperlipidemia with good antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract of the plant produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in elevated levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and atherogenic index and also increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and HDL-ratio without affecting serum insulin levels in fructose-fed rats.5,6

 

Urinary System:

i. Co-therapy of M. piperita with gentamicin has been observed to attenuate biochemical kidney functioning derangements and morphological changes associated with gentamicin. Animals treated with gentamicin showed derangements in serum and urinary biochemical parameters. These alterations were reversed by treatment with M. piperita extract. The histological changes showed in gentamicin group were also reverted by treatment with the extract. Further the plant did not influence the efficacy of gentamicin with respect to its antimicrobial properties.3 Therefore, it can be concluded that peppermint has got nephroprotective effect and it doesn?t counteract the effect of modern antibiotics while performing its action.7

 

Others: 

i. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of chemicals or dietary components to block, inhibit, or reverse the development of cancer in normal or pre-neoplastic tissue. Mentha extract (ME) has antioxidant and antiperoxidant properties. It has been demonstrated that Mentha piperita inhibited the initiation and promotion of oral dysplastic lesions.8

ii. The essential oil exhibits antifungal activity.9

iii. Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever.10

 

Indications:

Indigestion, allied nausea and abdominal pain or discomfort.

Sore throat, cough

General health

 

References:

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peppermint

2. McKay, D. L. and Blumberg, J. B. (2006), A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.) . Phytother. Res., 20: 619?633.

3. de Sousa AA, Soares PM, de Almeida AN, et al. Antispasmodic effect of Mentha piperita essential oil on tracheal smooth muscle of rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 20;130(2):433-6.

4. Alves JG, de Brito Rde C, Cavalcanti TS. Effectiveness of Mentha piperita in the Treatment of Infantile Colic: A Crossover Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:981352.

5. Mani Badal R, Badal D, Badal P, et al. Pharmacological Action of Mentha piperita on Lipid Profile in Fructose-Fed Rats. Iran J Pharm Res. 2011 Fall;10(4):843-8.

6. Barbalho SM, Damasceno DC, Spada AP, et al. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:430237.

7. Ullah N, Khan MA, Khan T, et al. Mentha piperita in nephrotoxicity--a possible intervention to ameliorate renal derangements associated with gentamicin. Indian J Pharmacol. 2014 Mar-Apr;46(2):166-70. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.129309.

8. Kasem RF, Hegazy RH, et al. Chemopreventive effect of Mentha piperita on dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and formaldehyde-induced tongue carcinogenesis in mice (histological and immunohistochemical study). J Oral Pathol Med. 2014 Aug;43(7):484-91.

9. Saharkhiz MJ, Motamedi M, Zomorodian K, et al. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L. ISRN Pharm. 2012;2012:718645.

10. Taher YA. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice. Libyan J Med. 2012;7.

 

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