E-HERBARIA

  • Name : Prasarini
  • English Name :Stinkvine Chinese Fever Vine
  • Scientific Name :Paederia foetida P scandens

 

Habitat:

Prasarini consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae); an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.1

Morphology Description (Habit):

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominent furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther.

Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black.

Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.

Parts Used:

Whole Plant

Phytochemistry:

Alkaloids and Volatile Oil.

Alkaloids and Volatile Oil.

Paederia foetida is known for the strong, sulphurous odour exuded when its leaves or stems are crushed or bruised. This is because the oil responsible for the smell, and found primarily within the leaves, contains sulphur compounds, including largely dimethyl disulphide.2

As per Ayurveda:

           Rasa (Taste)                 : Pancharasa (Lavana Varjit) i.e. sweet, sour, pungent, bitter and astringent

           Guna (Property)           : Heavy, rough and cold

           Veerya (Potency)         : Cold

           Vipaka (End Result)    : Sweet dyspepsia

Pharmacological Actions:

The primary pharmacological actions of this vatahara herb are summarized as under:

Central Nervous System: 

i. i. Paederosidic acid in Gandhapatra has been observed to possess significant anticonvulsant and sedative effects. Moreover, paederosidic acid has been observed to increase brain gamma-aminobutyric acid and decrease glutamic acid in the brain, and up-regulate expressions of GAD 65. This suggests that paederosidic acid may be a promising future therapeutic agent for treatment of epilepsy.3

Digestive System: 

i. Paederia foetida exhibits antidiarrhoeal activity by inhibiting intestinal motility.4

ii. The leaf extract has been observed to significantly ameliorate experimentally-induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property.5

Endocrinal System: 

i. The leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic activity due to its possible systematic effect involving in the pancreatic and extra pancreatic mechanism.6

Urinary System: 

i. IGPS (Iridoid glycosides of Paederia scandens) exerts protective effects against kidney damage in Uric Acid Nephropathy (UAN) through its uric acid-lowering, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Furthermore, decreasing SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure) by up regulation of NOS-1 expression and down regulation of TNF-α and TGF-β1 expression are involved in the effect of IGPS on high uric acid-induced nephropathy.7

Musculoskeletal System: 

i. The herbal extract possesses anti-inflammatory effects by modulating pro-inflammatory mediators' production in synovial tissue and inactivating NF-kappaB pathway transmembrane signal transduction which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gouty arthritis.8

ii. IGPS possesses antinociceptive effect that may help in neuropathic pain.9

Indications: 

i. Musculoskeletal Inflammations Arthritis Vataja disorders

References:

1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-1, Vol-2.

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paederia_foetida

3. Yang T, Kong B, Gu JW, et al. Anticonvulsant and sedative effects of paederosidic acid isolated from Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill. in mice and rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013 Oct;111:97-101.

4. Afroz S, Alamgir M, Khan MT, et al. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the ethanol extract of Paederia foetida Linn. (Rubiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 21;105(1-2):125-30.

5. Das S1, Kanodia L, Mukherjee A, Hakim A. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2013 Sep-Oct;45(5):453-7.

6. Kumar V1, Anwar F, Ahmed D, et al. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Feb 25;14:76.

7. Hou SX, Zhu WJ, Pang MQ, Jeffry J, Zhou LL. Protective effect of iridoid glycosides from Paederia scandens (LOUR.) MERRILL (Rubiaceae) on uric acid nephropathy rats induced by yeast and potassium oxonate. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Feb;64:57-64.

8. Ma Y, Zhou LL, Yan HY, Liu M. Effects of extracts from Paederia scandens (LOUR.) MERRILL (Rubiaceae) on MSU crystal-induced rats gouty arthritis. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37(4):669-83.

8. Liu M, Zhou L, Chen Z, Hu C. Analgesic effect of iridoid glycosides from Paederia scandens (LOUR.) MERRILL (Rubiaceae) on spared nerve injury rat model of neuropathic pain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Sep;102(3):465-70.

 

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