• Name : Parpata
  • English Name :Indian Fumitory
  • Scientific Name :Fumaria parviflora


Parpata consists of dried whole plant of Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fam. Fumaraceae), a pale green, branched, annual, diffuse herb, about 60 m high, distributed as a weed of cultivated fields over the greater parts of the country, and also commonly growing on road sides during cold season.1

Morphology Description:

Root - Buff or cream coloured, branched, about 3 mm thick, cylindrical; taste, bitter.

Stem - Light green, smooth, diffused, hollow, about 2 to 4 mm thick; taste, bitter and slightly acrid.

Leaf - Compound, pinnatifid, 5 to 7 cm long, divided into narrow segments; segments 5 mm long and about 1 mm broad, linear or oblong, more or less glaucous, acute or subacute; petiole, very thin, 2.5 to 4.0 cm long; taste, bitter.

Flower - Racemes with 10 to 15 flowers, peduncle upto 3 mm, pedicels about 2 mm, flowers about 7 mm long, bract much longer than the pedicels; sepals 2, white, minute, about 0.5 mm long, triangular ovate, acuminate; corolla in 2 whorls with very small 4 petals, each about 4 mm long; inner petals with a purple or green tip; outer petals with narrow spur, without purple spots stamens 3+3 , staminal sheath subulate above, about 4 mm long, stigma 2 lipped.

Fruit - Capsule, 2 mm long and slightly broader, subrotund, obovate, obtuse or subtruncate, obscurely apiculate, rugose when dry; nutlets globose, upto 2 mm long, single seeded.1

Parts Used:            Whole Plant


Alkaloids, Tannins, Sugars and salt of Potassium1

As per Ayurveda:

Rasa (Taste)                  Bitter

Guna (Property)             Rough

Veerya (Potency)           Cold

Vipaka (End Result)      Pungent

Pharmacological Actions:

Parpata is Pittakaphahara; its primary pharmacological actions are summarized as under:

Digestive System: 

i. Possesses nematicidal activity.2 

ii. Exerts prokinetic and laxative effects. 3

iii. Protects against hepatotoxicity.4

Endocrinal System: 

i. Exerts anti-hyperglycemic activity. 5

Reproductive System: 

i. F. parviflora leaves have a potential to restore the suppressed reproduction associated with lead exposure and have been observed to prevent lead-induced testicular toxicity. 6

Skin and Hair: 

i. The extract may be considered as an effective agent for treatment of chronic hand eczema.7


i. Exhibits significant antioxidant activity. 8


 Liver Dysfunction


1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-1, Vol-IV.

2. Naz I, Saifullah, Khan MR. Nematicidal Activity of Nonacosane-10-ol and 23a-Homostigmast-5-en-3β-ol Isolated from the Roots of Fumariaparviflora (Fumariaceae). J Agric Food Chem. 2013.

3. Najeeb-ur-Rehman, Mehmood MH, et al. Species and tissue-specificity of prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic effects of Fumaria parviflora. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Mar 10;12:16.

4. Tripathi M, Singh BK, Raisuddin S, Kakkar P. Abrogation of nimesulide induced oxidative stress and mitochondria mediated apoptosis by Fumaria parvifloraLam. extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jun 14;136(1):94-102.

5. Fathiazad F, Hamedeyazdan S, et al. Hypoglycemic activity of Fumaria parviflora in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic rats. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2013; 3(1): 207-210.

6. Dorostghoal M, Seyyednejad SM, Jabari A. Protective effects of Fumaria parviflora L. on lead-induced testicular toxicity in male rats. Andrologia. 2013.

7. Jowkar F, Jamshidzadeh A, Mirzadeh Yazdi A, Pasalar M. The effects of fumaria parviflora L extract on chronic hand eczema: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2011 Nov;13(11):824-8.

8. Hamedeyazdan S, Fathiazad F, et al. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Fumaria parviflora. Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012;7(5).

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