E-HERBARIA

  • Name : Majuphala
  • English Name :Oak-Gall
  • Scientific Name :Quercus infectoria

 

Habitat:

Majuphal consists of dried galls found on Quercus infectoria, a small tree or shrub, 2 to 5 m high, native of Greece, Asia Minor, Syria and Iran. The galls are excrescences on the twigs, resulting from insect attack of the growing, rudimentary leaves; they are imported into India.1

 

Morphology Description (Habit):

Galls spherical or pear-shaped, hard and brittle 1.2 to 2.5 cm in diameter having a short basal stalk and numerous rounded projections on the upper part of the gall; they usually sink in water; surface, smooth, rather shining, bluish-green, olive green or white brown, a few galls show the escape route of insect, in the form of a small rounded hole leading to a cylindrical canal which passes to the centre of the gall; taste, astringent, followed by sweetness; average weight of ten galls picked at random should not be less than 2.5 g.1

 

Parts Used:

Gall

 

Phytochemistry:

Tannic Acid, Starch and Sugars

 

As per Ayurveda:

           Rasa (Taste)                 : Astringent

           Guna (Property)           : Light, rough

           Veerya (Potency)         : Cold

           Vipaka (End Result)      : Pungent

 

Pharmacological Actions:

As per Ayurveda, Mayaphala is Kaphapittahara. Its primary pharmacological actions are summarized as under:

 

Digestive System:

i. Exhibits anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity.2

ii. Exerts anti-amoebic activity.3

 

Endocrinal System: 

i. Hexagalloylglucose (3-O-digalloyl-1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D- glucose), which was isolated from the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria, significantly inhibited alpha-glycosidases such as sucrase, maltase and isomaltase. Its inhibitory activity was comparable to acarbose being used as a hypoglycemic agent, while the inhibitory activity on alpha-amylase was approximately 10 times lower than that of acarbose. The results indicate that, when compared to acarbose, hexagalloylglucose might reduce the side effects by reducing inhibition of alpha-amylase.4

 

Cardiovascular System: 

i. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors plays a critical role in treating hypertension. Q. infectoria has been observed to possess high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity.5

ii. Exhibits antilipidemic and antiatherogenic effects.6

 

Skin and Hair: 

i. Exhibits significant wound healing activity.7

 

Others: 

i. Recently, there is motivation to control cancer via inhibition of angiogenesis. In this respect, it has been observed that Quercus infectoria has got potent antiangiogenic action which exerts its inhibitory effect mainly through downregulation of essential mediators such as VEGF and MMPs.8

ii. Exhibits significant anti-biofilm potency.9

iii. Q. infectoria galls have been observed to exhibit similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens.10

 

Indications:

Diarrhea, Dysentery

Excessive bleeding during menstruation (Menorrhagia)

Oro-gingival Health

 

References:

1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-1, Vol-IV.

2. Pithayanukul P, Nithitanakool S, Bavovada R. Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria. Molecules. 2009 Dec 1;14(12):4987-5000.

3. Sawangjaroen N, Sawangjaroen K, Poonpanang P. Effects of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall on caecal amoebiasis in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Apr;91(2-3):357-60.

4. Hwang JK, Kong TW, Baek NI, Pyun YR. alpha-Glycosidase inhibitory activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria. Planta Med. 2000 Apr;66(3):273-4.

5. Sharifi N, Souri E, Ziai SA, et al. Discovery of new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from medicinal plants to treat hypertension using an in vitro assay. Daru. 2013 Dec 20;21(1):74.

6. Joukar S, Askarzadeh M, Shahouzehi B, et al. Assessment of Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy of Rosa damascena L. and Quercus infectoria on Cardiovascular Performance of Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rabbits: Physiologically Based Approach. J Toxicol. 2013;2013:769143.

7. S P Umachigi, K N Jayaveera, C K Ashok Kumar, et al. Studies on Wound Healing Properties of Quercus infectoria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2008; 7(1): 913-919.

8. Yarani R1, Mansouri K, Mohammadi-Motlagh HR, et al. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis by hydroalcoholic extract of oak (Quercus infectoria) acorn shell via suppressing VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 secretion. Pharm Biol. 2013 Mar;51(3):361-8.

9. Chusri S, Phatthalung PN, Voravuthikunchai SP. Anti-biofilm activity of Quercus infectoria G. Olivier against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2012 Jun;54(6):511-7.

10. Basri DF, Tan LS, Shafiei Z, Zin NM. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:632796.

 

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