E-HERBARIA

  • Name : Kayphal
  • English Name :Bay Berry, Box Myrtle
  • Scientific Name :Myrica nagi

 

Habitat:

Katphal is a dioecious, evergreen, small or moderate sized tree, 3-15 m high, found in sub-tropical Himalayas from Ravi eastwards to Assam, and in Khasi, Jaintia, Naga and Lushai hills at elevation of 900-2100 m.1

 

Morphology Description (Habit):

Stem Bark - occurs in pieces of variable length, 1-2.5 cm thick, slightly quilled, fissured longitudinally and transversely, outer surface rough, grey to brownish-grey, inner surface dark brown and smooth; fracture, hard; taste, bitter.1

Fruit - A drupe, ellipsoid or ovoid, 0.7-1.0 cm long, 0.5-0.7 cm wide, dark brown, surface tubercled, very hard; taste, sourish sweet.

Seed - Ovoid, 0.6 cm long, 0.3 cm wide, surface very smooth, light brown; taste, oily. 1

 

Parts Used:

Dried Fruit, Stem Bark

 

Phytochemistry:

 

As per Ayurveda:

           Rasa (Taste)                 : Pungent, bitter and astringent

           Guna (Property)           : Light, sharp

           Veerya (Potency)         : Hot

           Vipaka (End Result)      : Pungent

 

Pharmacological Actions:

Katphal is Kaphavatahara. The primary pharmacological actions of Katphal are summarized as under:

 

Central Nervous System:

i. The stem bark has been observed to exhibit anxiolytic activity.2

 

Respiratory System: 

i. The stem bark of M. esculenta possesses antiallergic activity. It is useful in allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma. This activity may be mediated by reducing the release of mediators such as histamine, inhibition of mast cell degranulation, and inhibition of eosinophil accumulation thereby preventing the release of cytokines and chemokines.3

 

Others: 

i. The fruits possess significant antioxidant activities.4

ii. The plant possesses mast cell stabilizing activity.5

iii. Its oil possesses significant antimicrobial and topical anti-inflammatory activities.6

iv. iv. The stem bark is extremely useful against oral pathogens and is employed for oral care preparations.

 

Indications:

Orodental disorders

Allergic disorders, including asthma

 

References:

1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Part-1, Vol-3.

2. Md. Yaseen Khan, H. Sagrawat, N. Upmanyu, et al. Anxiolytic Properties of Myrica nagi Bark Extract. 2008; 46 (10-11): 757-761.

3. Patel K, Rao Nj, Gajera V, et al. Anti-allergic Activity of Stem Bark of Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. (Myricaceae). J Young Pharm. 2010 Jan;2(1):74-8.

4. Rawat S, Jugran A, Giri L, et al. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties in Fruits of Myrica esculenta: A Popular Wild Edible Species in Indian Himalayan Region. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011.

5. Patel T, Rajshekhar C, Parmar R. Mast cell stabilizing activity of Myrica nagi. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Studies and Research. 2011; 2(1): 7-9.

6. Agnihotri S, Wakode S, Ali M. Essential oil of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham.: composition, antimicrobial and topical anti-inflammatory activities. Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(23):2266-9.

 

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