E-HERBARIA

  • Name : Chamomile
  • English Name :
  • Scientific Name :Matricaria chamomilla, M.recutita, Chamomilla recutita

Habitat:

M. chamomilla can be found near populated areas all over Europe and temperate Asia, and it has been widely introduced in temperate North Americaand Australia. It often grows near roads, around landfills, and in cultivated fields as a weed, because the seeds require open soil to survive.1

Morphology Description:

M. chamomilla has a branched, erect and smooth stem, which grows to a height of 15?60 cm (6-24inches). The long and narrow leaves are bipinnate or tripinnate.The flowers are borne in paniculate flower heads (capitula).The white ray florets are furnished with a ligule, while the disc florets are yellow.The hollowreceptacle is swollen and lacks scales. This property distinguishes German chamomile from corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis), which has a receptacle with scales. The flowers bloom in early to midsummer, and have a strong, aromatic smell.1

Parts Used:            Flowers / Seed

Phytochemistry:

The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties.2

Chemical profiling both by GC and GC-MS analyses of the hydrodistilled essential oil of M. recutita revealed α-bisabolol oxide A (28%), α-bisabolol oxide B (17.1%), (Z)-β-Farnesene (15.9%) and α-bisabolol (6.8%) as the main components.3

Pharmacological Actions:

Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy.2

Chamomile is extremely useful for stomach upset and disturbed sleep. The primary pharmacological actions of this soothing herb are summarized as under:

Central Nervous System: 

i. Exerts antidepressant and anxiolytic activities.4

ii. Exhibits potent neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.5

Digestive System: 

i. Exerts gastroprotective activity.6

Reproductive System: 

i. Chamomile can decrease the signs of PCOS in the ovarian tissue and help LH secretion.7

Urinary System: 

i. Exerts nephroprotective activity.8

Skin and Hair: 

i. Stimulates re-epithelialization and the formation of collagen fibers.9

ii. Bisabololoxide A (BSBO), main constituents in German chamomile extract, is responsible for antipruritic effect. BSBO at low micromolar concentrations is cytoprotective against calcium overload.10

Others: 

i. Exhibits antitumor activity.11

ii. In a study, it was observed that Chamomile could provide modest benefits of daytime functioning and mixed benefits on sleep diary measures relative to placebo in adults with chronic primary insomnia.12

iii. Possesses significant anti-allergic activity.13

iv. Chamomile inhibits NO production and iNOS gene expression by inhibiting RelA/p65 activation and supports the utilization of chamomile as an effective anti-inflammatory agent.14

Indications:

 Anxiety, Stress

 Sleep Disturbances

 Skin Allergy

 PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome)

References:

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matricaria_chamomilla

2. Srivastava JK, Shankar E, Gupta S. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future. Mol Med Rep. 2010 Nov 1;3(6):895-901.

3. Can OD, Demir ?zkay U, Kıyan HT, Demirci B. Psychopharmacological profile of Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) essential oil in mice. Phytomedicine. 2012 Feb 15;19(3-4):306-10.

4. Amsterdam JD, Shults J, Soeller I, et al. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) may provide antidepressant activity in anxious, depressed humans: an exploratory study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2012 Sep-Oct;18(5):44-9.

5. Ranpariya VL, Parmar SK, Sheth NR, Chandrashekhar VM. Neuroprotective activity of Matricaria recutita against fluoride-induced stress in rats. Pharm Biol. 2011 Jul;49(7):696-701.

6. Al-Hashem FH. Gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Chamomilla recutita against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Saudi Med J. 2010 Nov;31(11):1211-6.

7. Farideh ZZ, Bagher M, Ashraf A, Akram A, Kazem M. Effects of chamomile extract on biochemical and clinical parameters in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome. J Reprod Infertil. 2010 Oct;11(3):169-74.

8. Salama RH. Matricaria chamomilla attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012 Jul;23(4):765-72.

9. Duarte CM, Quirino MR, Patroc?nio MC, Anbinder AL. Effects of Chamomilla recutita (L.) on oral wound healing in rats. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011 Sep 1;16(6):e716-21.

10. Fukunaga E, Hirao Y, Ogata-Ikeda I, et al. Bisabololoxide A, One of the Constituents in German Chamomile Extract, Attenuates Cell Death Induced by Calcium Overload. Phytother Res. 2013.

11. Matić IZ, Juranić Z, Savikin K, et al. Chamomile and marigold tea: chemical characterization and evaluation of anticancer activity. Phytother Res. 2013 Jun;27(6):852-8.

12. Zick SM, Wright BD, Sen A, Arnedt JT. Preliminary examination of the efficacy and safety of a standardized chamomile extract for chronic primary insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Sep 22;11:78.

13. Chandrashekhar VM, Halagali KS, Nidavani RB, et al. Anti-allergic activity of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) in mast cell mediated allergy model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;137(1):336-40.

14. Bhaskaran N, Shukla S, Srivastava JK, Gupta S. Chamomile: an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity. Int J Mol Med. 2010 Dec;26(6):935-40.

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