E-HERBARIA

  • Name : Bol
  • English Name :Myrrh, Gum Myrrhm Mirazid
  • Scientific Name :Commiphora myrrha

 

Habitat:

Myrrh is a resin made from dried tree sap. The tree is native to the Arabian peninsula (Oman, Yemen) and to Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Northeast Kenya). Commiphora myrrha is very spiny and it grows to a height of about 4 m (13 ft). It grows at an altitude of between about 250 to 1,300 m (820 to 4,270 ft) with a yearly mean rainfall of about 23 to 30 cm (9.1 to 11.8 in). It does best in thin soil, primarily in areas with limestone.1

 

Morphology Description (Habit):

When a tree wound penetrates through the bark and into the sapwood, the tree bleeds a resin. Myrrh gum. Myrrh gum is waxy, and coagulates quickly. After the harvest, the gum becomes hard and glossy. The gum is yellowish, and may be either clear or opaque. It darkens deeply as it ages, and white streaks emerge.2

 

Parts Used:

Oleo-resin

 

Phytochemistry:

Volatile oil, resin (myrrhin), gum, ash, salts, sulphates, benzoates, malates, and acetates of potassa.

 

Pharmacological Actions:

 

Central Nervous System:

i. Exerts neuroprotective effect.3

 

Digestive System:

i. Useful in the management of giardiasis.4

 

Cardiovascular System:

i. Commiphora molmol extract (Myrrh) has significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic effects and decreases body weight.5

 

Reproductive System: 

i. Exhibits significant anti-Trichomonas vaginialis activity.6

 

Skin and Hair: 

i. Myrrh has been used as anti-inflammatory and wound healing commercial product. Leukocyte count had been reliable indicator for clinicians to monitor progress of healing for their patients. Myrrh helps maintain relative rise of leukocytes counts throughout healing period, which implies it activated late steps of both proliferation and differentiation pathways for all types of leukocytes during effective phase of the specific immune responses.7

ii. Myrrh water extract can notably promote the proliferation of Fb, accelerate the cell cycle of Fb, and up-regulate the mRNA expression of type III collagen in Fb, which may be related to its mechanisms in promoting wound healing.8

 

Others: 

i. Schistosomiasis is a widespread helminthic disease. Treatment of schistosomiasis is based on chemotherapy with praziquantel, which is the drug of choice. Since resistance to praziquantel has been demonstrated, alternative drugs must be considered. Myrrh has been observed to exhibit significant antischistosomal effect.9

ii. Possesses anaesthetic, antibacterial and antifungal properties.10

 

Indications:

Painful and Inflammatory conditions

 

References:

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commiphora_myrrha

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myrrh

3. Xu J, Guo Y, Zhao P, et al. Neuroprotective cadinane sesquiterpenes from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha. Fitoterapia. 2011 Dec;82(8):1198-201.

4. Fathy FM. Effect of mirazid (Commiphora molmol) on experimental giardiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2011 Apr;41(1):155-77.

5. Mostafa Abbas Shalaby, Ashraf Abd-Elkhalik Hammouda. Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Commiphora molmol Extract (Myrrh). J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 3(2): 56-62

6. El-Sherbiny GM, El Sherbiny ET. The Effect of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) in Treatment of Trichomoniasis vaginalis infection. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2011 Jul;13(7):480-6.

7. Haffor AS. Effect of Commiphora molmol on leukocytes proliferation in relation to histological alterations before and during healing from injury. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2010 Apr;17(2):139-46.

8. Bai XZ, Hu DH, Bai L, ET AL. Effects of myrrh extract on proliferation and collagen mRNA expression of human fibroblasts in vitro. Zhonghua Shao Shang za zhi(Chinese Journal of Burns). 2012; 28(2):130-133.

9. Z Sheir, A A Nasr, A Massoud, et al. A safe, effective, herbal antischistosomal therapy derived0 from myrrh. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2001; 65(6): 700-704.

10. Piero Dolara, Barbara Corte, Carla Ghelardini, et al. Local Anaesthetic, Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Sesquiterpenes from Myrrh. Planta Med 2000; 66(4): 356-358

 

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