• Name : Asthishrankhla
  • English Name :Edible-Stemmed Vine
  • Scientific Name :Cissus quadrangularis



A fleshy climber with joined stem and leaf opposed tendrils growing along hedges and distributed throughout the hotter parts of India.


Morphology Description (Habit):

The stem-pieces are sub-quadrangular, flattened, winged and jointed, having constricted nodes and spindle shaped internodes. They are smooth, shiny, dull green or greyish brown when old.


Parts Used:

Aerial Parts



Triterpenoids: 7-oxo-onocer-8-ene-2β, 21α-diol, friedalan-3-one, taraxerol, isopentacosanoic acid, β-sitosterol1

A wide variety of chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from Cissus extracts, including steroids, flavonoids, stilbenes, iridoids, triterpenes and gallic acid derivatives.2


As per Ayurveda:

           Rasa (Taste)                 : Pungent, Astringent, Sweet

           Guna (Property)           : Lough, unctuous

           Veerya (Potency)         : Hot

           Vipaka (End Result)      : Sweet


Pharmacological Actions:

Extracts and powders of Cissus quadrangularis have been used for many years to promote bone and tissues healing, as an analgesic, to treat infections, as an anabolic, and to promote weight loss and weight management.2

As per Ayurveda, Asthishrankhla is Kaphavatahara. The primary pharmacological actions of this therapeutic herb are summarized as under:


Digestive System: 

i. The extract possesses hepatoprotective activity, which might be ascribable to its antioxidant property due to the presence of β-carotene.3

ii. Cissus quadrangularis has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hemorrhoid. The extract with quercetin and resveratrol, helps in restoring ROS in endothelial cells through the upregulation of superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which explains the molecular mechanism of antioxidant defense of C. quadrangularis in endothelial cells under oxidative stress.4

iii. C. quadrangularis Linn. is potent inhibitor of proton pump.5

iv. CQ helps in the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with hemorrhoid and reducing the size of hemorrhoids.6

v. CQE promotes ulcer protection by the decrease in ulcer index, gastric secretions and increase in the glycoprotein level, gastric mucin content and NPSH concentration. CQE may protect the gastric mucosa against ulceration by its antisecretory and cytoprotective property.7


Endocrinal System : 

i. In experimental models of high fat-high fructose diet (HFFD), fortification of diet with CQ extract significantly improved insulin sensitivity, reduced liver damage and oxidative changes, and brought back the antioxidants and lipids towards normal. It affords hepatoprotection by its antioxidant and insulin-sensitizing activities.8


Musculoskeletal System: 

i. Women drastically loose bone during and after menopause leading to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass increasing the risk of fractures with minor trauma. CQ has been observed to effectively inhibit bone loss in the cancellous and cortical bones of femur and proximal tibia in ovariectomized-experimental models.9

ii. The phytoestrogen-rich fraction separated from aerial parts of CQ was observed to possess good antiosteoporotic activity.10


Others : 

i. Traditionally CQ is used to treat various diseases like asthma, indigestion, ear diseases, irregular menstruation, skin diseases, piles, fractured bones, etc. COX and 5-LOX inhibitors has been isolated from the stems of Cissus quadrangularis. It also effectively downregulates the pro-inflammatory mediators iNOS and TNFα, and upregulates HO-1.11

ii. Possesses anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties.12

iii. Maternal administration of Cissus quadrangularis petroleum ether extract during pregnancy can stimulate the development of fetal bone growth during the intra-uterine developmental period.13

iv. CQ is useful in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome.14





Fractures and Dislocations

Dyslipidemia and Obesity

Metabolic Syndrome



1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-1, Vol-6.

2. Stohs SJ, Ray SD. A review and evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Cissus quadrangularis extracts. Phytotherapy Research. 2012.

3. Swamy AH, Kulkarni RV, Koti BC, et al Hepatoprotective Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract Against Rifampicin-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012 Mar;74(2):183-7.

4. Sapsrithong T, Kaewprem W, Tongumpai S, et al. Cissus quadrangularis ethanol extract upregulates superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in hydrogen peroxide-injured human ECV304 cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):664-72.

5. Yadav P, Ganeshpurkar A, Rai G. In vitro H(+) -K(+) ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Pharmacognosy Research. 2012 Apr;4(2):123-6.

6. Panthong A, Supraditaporn W, Kanjanapothi D, et al. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007 Mar 21;110(2):264-70.

7. Jainu M, Vijai Mohan K, Shyamala Devi CS. Gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract in rats with experimentally induced ulcer. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2006 Jun;123(6):799-806.

8. Chidambaram J, Carani Venkatraman A. Cissus quadrangularis stem alleviates insulin resistance, oxidative injury and fatty liver disease in rats fed high fat plus fructose diet. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010 Aug-Sep;48(8-9):2021-9.

9. Banu J, Varela E, Bahadur AN, et al. Inhibition of Bone Loss by Cissus quadrangularis in Mice: A Preliminary Report. Journal of Osteoporosis. 2012;2012:101206.

10. Aswar UM, Mohan V, Bodhankar SL. Antiosteoporotic activity of phytoestrogen-rich fraction separated from ethanol extract of aerial parts of Cissusquadrangularis in ovariectomized rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2012 May;44(3):345-50.

11. Bhujade AM, Talmale S, Kumar N, et al. Evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis extracts as an inhibitor of COX, 5-LOX, and proinflammatory mediators. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012 Jun 14;141(3):989-96.

12. Kumar R, Sharma AK, Saraf SA, Gupta R. CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae). Journal of Dietary Supplements. 2010 Mar;7(1):1-8.

13. Potu BK, Rao MS, Kutty NG, et al. Petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (LINN) stimulates the growth of fetal bone during intra uterine developmental period: a morphometric analysis. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008 Dec;63(6):815-20.

14. Oben J, Kuate D, Agbor G, Momo C, Talla X. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2006 Sep 2;5:24.

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