E-HERBARIA

  • Name : Ajwain
  • English Name :Ajowain, Thyme
  • Scientific Name :Trachyspermum ammi, Carum copticum, Ptychotis ajwan

 

Habitat:

An annual, erect herb, upto 90 cm tall, cultivated almost throughout India, uprooted and thrashed for collecting the fruits.1

 

Morphology Description (Habit):

Fruit, consists of two mericaprs, greyish brown, ovoid, compressed, about 2 mm long and 1 mm wide with pale coloured protuberances, 5 ridges and 6 vittae in each mericarp, usually separate, 5 primary ridges pale in colour, odour, characteristic, thymolic, taste, pungent.1

 

Parts Used:

Fruit

 

Phytochemistry:

Essential oil and fixed oil.

 

As per Ayurveda:

           Rasa (Taste)                 : Pungent, bitter

           Guna (Property)           : Light, rough and sharp

           Veerya (Potency)         : Hot

           Vipaka (End Result)      : Pungent

 

Pharmacological Actions:

Carum copticum from Apiaceae family has several biological effects including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and antispasmodic activities.2

The primary pharmacological actions of this carminative fruit are summarized as under:

 

Central Nervous System:

i. Carum copticum is effective in suppression of morphine withdrawal.2

ii. Possesses sedative and anxiolytic properties.3

 

Respiratory System:

i. Exerts significant bronchodilatory effect.4

ii. Possesses significant antitussive effect.5

iii. The essential oil exerts relaxant effect on trachea, mainly due to carvacrol.6

 

Digestive System:

i. Exerts spasmolytic activity owing to inhibitory effect on acetylcholine induced ileal contraction.7

 

Cardiovascular System: 

i. Trachyspermum ammi contains a calcium channel blocker-like constituent (thymol) which is implicated in its hypotensive and bradycardiac effects.8

 

Urinary System: 

i. Possesses antilithiatic potential, maintains renal functioning, reduces renal injury and decreases crystal excretion in urine and retention in renal tissues.9

 

Musculoskeletal System: 

i. Carum copticum extract possesses a clear-cut analgesic effect.10

 

Others: 

i. Mitigates biofilm formation and caries development.11

ii. Carum Oil possesses significant antioxidant and antibacterial properties.12

 

Indications:

Indigestion, Flatulence and allied Abdominal Discomfort

Dysmenorrhea

Dental Caries

Cough, Bronchitis, Bronchial Asthma

Hypertension

Musculoskeletal Pains and Inflammation

 

References:

1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-1.

2. Ghannadi A, Hajhashemi V, Abrishami R. Effects of the Persian Carum copticum fruit extracts on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Res Pharm Sci. 2012 Jul;7(3):127-31.

3. Rezvani ME, Roohbakhsh A, Mosaddegh MH, et al. Anticonvulsant and depressant effects of aqueous extracts of Carum copticum seeds in male rats. Epilepsy Behav. 2011 Oct;22(2):220-5.

4. Boskabady MH, Alizadeh M, Jahanbin B. Bronchodilatory effect of Carum copticum in airways of asthmatic patients. Therapie. 2007 Jan-Feb;62(1):23-9.

5. Boskabady MH, Jandaghi P, Kiani S, Hasanzadeh L. Antitussive effect of Carum copticum in guinea pigs. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 10;97(1):79-82.

6. Boskabady MH, Ramazani M, Tabei T. Relaxant effects of different fractions of essential oil from Carum copticum on guinea pig tracheal chains. Phytother Res. 2003 Dec;17(10):1145-9.

7. Hejazian-Y SH, Dashti-R MH, Mahdavi SM, Qureshi MA. The effect of Carum Copticum extract on acetylcholine induced contraction in isolated rat's ileum. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2009 Mar;2(1):75-8.

8. Aftab K, Atta-Ur-Rahman, Usmanghani K. Blood pressure lowering action of active principle from Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague. Phytomedicine. 1995 Jul;2(1):35-40.

9. Kaur T, Bijarnia RK, Singla SK, Tandon C. In vivo efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi anticalcifying protein in urolithiatic rat model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 10;126(3):459-62.

10. Dashti-Rahmatabadi MH, Hejazian SH, Morshedi A, Rafati A. The analgesic effect of Carum copticum extract and morphine on phasic pain in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):226-8.

11. Khan R, Adil M, Danishuddin M, et al. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm by Trachyspermum ammi seeds: an approach of alternative medicine. Phytomedicine. 2012 Jun 15;19(8-9):747-55.

12. Kavoosi G, Tafsiry A, Ebdam AA, Rowshan V. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Carum copticum seed and Ferula assafoetida latex. J Food Sci. 2013 Feb;78(2):T356-61.

 

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