• Name : Ajwain
  • English Name :Ajowain, Thyme
  • Scientific Name :Trachyspermum ammi, Carum copticum, Ptychotis ajwan



An annual, erect herb, upto 90 cm tall, cultivated almost throughout India, uprooted and thrashed for collecting the fruits.1


Morphology Description (Habit):

Fruit, consists of two mericaprs, greyish brown, ovoid, compressed, about 2 mm long and 1 mm wide with pale coloured protuberances, 5 ridges and 6 vittae in each mericarp, usually separate, 5 primary ridges pale in colour, odour, characteristic, thymolic, taste, pungent.1


Parts Used:




Essential oil and fixed oil.


As per Ayurveda:

           Rasa (Taste)                 : Pungent, bitter

           Guna (Property)           : Light, rough and sharp

           Veerya (Potency)         : Hot

           Vipaka (End Result)      : Pungent


Pharmacological Actions:

Carum copticum from Apiaceae family has several biological effects including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and antispasmodic activities.2

The primary pharmacological actions of this carminative fruit are summarized as under:


Central Nervous System:

i. Carum copticum is effective in suppression of morphine withdrawal.2

ii. Possesses sedative and anxiolytic properties.3


Respiratory System:

i. Exerts significant bronchodilatory effect.4

ii. Possesses significant antitussive effect.5

iii. The essential oil exerts relaxant effect on trachea, mainly due to carvacrol.6


Digestive System:

i. Exerts spasmolytic activity owing to inhibitory effect on acetylcholine induced ileal contraction.7


Cardiovascular System: 

i. Trachyspermum ammi contains a calcium channel blocker-like constituent (thymol) which is implicated in its hypotensive and bradycardiac effects.8


Urinary System: 

i. Possesses antilithiatic potential, maintains renal functioning, reduces renal injury and decreases crystal excretion in urine and retention in renal tissues.9


Musculoskeletal System: 

i. Carum copticum extract possesses a clear-cut analgesic effect.10



i. Mitigates biofilm formation and caries development.11

ii. Carum Oil possesses significant antioxidant and antibacterial properties.12



Indigestion, Flatulence and allied Abdominal Discomfort


Dental Caries

Cough, Bronchitis, Bronchial Asthma


Musculoskeletal Pains and Inflammation



1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-1.

2. Ghannadi A, Hajhashemi V, Abrishami R. Effects of the Persian Carum copticum fruit extracts on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Res Pharm Sci. 2012 Jul;7(3):127-31.

3. Rezvani ME, Roohbakhsh A, Mosaddegh MH, et al. Anticonvulsant and depressant effects of aqueous extracts of Carum copticum seeds in male rats. Epilepsy Behav. 2011 Oct;22(2):220-5.

4. Boskabady MH, Alizadeh M, Jahanbin B. Bronchodilatory effect of Carum copticum in airways of asthmatic patients. Therapie. 2007 Jan-Feb;62(1):23-9.

5. Boskabady MH, Jandaghi P, Kiani S, Hasanzadeh L. Antitussive effect of Carum copticum in guinea pigs. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 10;97(1):79-82.

6. Boskabady MH, Ramazani M, Tabei T. Relaxant effects of different fractions of essential oil from Carum copticum on guinea pig tracheal chains. Phytother Res. 2003 Dec;17(10):1145-9.

7. Hejazian-Y SH, Dashti-R MH, Mahdavi SM, Qureshi MA. The effect of Carum Copticum extract on acetylcholine induced contraction in isolated rat's ileum. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2009 Mar;2(1):75-8.

8. Aftab K, Atta-Ur-Rahman, Usmanghani K. Blood pressure lowering action of active principle from Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague. Phytomedicine. 1995 Jul;2(1):35-40.

9. Kaur T, Bijarnia RK, Singla SK, Tandon C. In vivo efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi anticalcifying protein in urolithiatic rat model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 10;126(3):459-62.

10. Dashti-Rahmatabadi MH, Hejazian SH, Morshedi A, Rafati A. The analgesic effect of Carum copticum extract and morphine on phasic pain in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):226-8.

11. Khan R, Adil M, Danishuddin M, et al. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm by Trachyspermum ammi seeds: an approach of alternative medicine. Phytomedicine. 2012 Jun 15;19(8-9):747-55.

12. Kavoosi G, Tafsiry A, Ebdam AA, Rowshan V. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Carum copticum seed and Ferula assafoetida latex. J Food Sci. 2013 Feb;78(2):T356-61.


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